Professor Brauer's research focuses on group and inter-group processes. On-going studies comprise three specific programs of research. One such program concerns SOCIAL POWER, and the cognitive and behavioral consequences of belonging to high and low power groups. For example, we have recently examined the effect of power on behavioral disinhibition and on within-group differentiation. A second program of research concerns INTERGROUP PERCEPTION, that is, the manner in which individuals process information about the groups that they belong to (in-groups) as well those that they do not belong to (out-groups). Recently completed studies in this area have examined the reduction of prejudice and discrimination through manipulations of individuals' perception of the heterogeneity of the discriminated group. A third research program examines what we now call CIVIL COURAGE, which is the open expression of opposition to observed uncivil or immoral behaviors. Studies in this program examine the effects of perceived deviance and frequency on expressions of civil courage.